Chapter 32

Of Mr. John Hunt’s Twelve Arminian Errors in the Article of Universal Redemption.

His first error in the matter of Christ’s Particular Redemption falls in with the Universal conceit, thus, “all our people’s souls are equally dear to us.” {Page 29} Aye, say the Times, this man now is charitable, he’s no straight-laced preacher, and he’s for the General Philanthropy. He’ll not trouble men’s heads, and so we will warrant him, about Election, as too many of your Geneva Men do. I, but what signifies it towards the Salvation of men, that men are for any hopes or doctrine to support it, which the scope and design of the Scriptures are not for? It saves none the sooner, nor does the other way of Particular Redemption, which the Scriptures promote, damn one man more than would be damned, if there were a Universal Redemption for Heaven, left, as to the issues of it, in the hands of man’s free-will. Now to say, all our people’s souls are equally dear to us, must have grounds for it, or none. If none, ‘tis a rotten assertion without more canvassing. If grounds for it are pretended, these grounds must either be Universal Redemption or Universal Regeneration. If Universal Redemption {which ‘tis most probable is the secret belief of these preachers} why then there too, is the very article of Arminianism without more to say. If Universal Regeneration {which is not so likely to be insisted on} should be alleged, then all our hearers must be thought to have a Work of Grace. Constant hearers all turned to Christ; occasional hearers all Saints! Here now would be a brave world indeed. But this is evidently false. There are none of these grounds on the Spirit’s side, and therefore this assertion of the Universal dearness of all our people’s souls equally is some of the nasty paint, of the rotten post, set up by God’s posts. {“In their setting of their threshold by my thresholds, and their post by my posts, and the wall between me and them, they have even defiled my holy name by their abominations that they have committed,” Ezek.43:8; “their post by my post” which is done when the teachings of Holy Scripture are changed or altered to accommodate the doctrines of men and substituted in the room of the decrees of God, or set upon a level with them; and thus, the commandments of men are taught for the doctrines of God. “But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.” Mt.15:9.} All our people’s souls equally dear? Where is the equal ground, or the equal similitude? Is a hypocrite’s soul as dear to us {and haven’t we many of these our hearers, that shall remain so, and ‘tis likely forever,} as a holy brother’s, or believer’s soul, is dear unto us who watch for the souls of the brethren of Christ, open and secret, and not for such whom Christ never knew? Why should the souls of such as Christ prayed not for, be as dear as those whom he prayed for? Why should we love those who have no portion in David, equally with the bride of King David’s Son, and the friends of the Bridegroom Jesus Christ? I see no reason from the principles of the Gospel for this. If Mr. Hunt be no Arminian, he is fallen into gross Arminianism, and does not even know it. If by men’s fruits we should know them, as our Lord tells us, Mt.7:17, why not by their fruits of light and love to Christ, and usefulness from thence for Christ’s interest, love their souls proportionately? Away then with Mr. Hunt’s equality.

His second error in the article of Universal Redemption is this, even with the Universal particle, as the Arminians do in that point, “one would think that every family should come with their young and with their old.” {Page 146} How so? ‘Tis plain enough in the Scripture that ‘tis quite upon the other side, “I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion.” Jer.3:14. ‘Tis not by nations, parishes, cities, and whole tribes. ‘Tis not all the natives of a place under the clearest light, or most powerful preaching of Christ displayed, that we are to look for in our day, against plain evidence of the Word. ‘Tis a remnant, Rom.9:27; who then that is a Believer can look for a Universality? ‘Tis an elect few; and what anti-Gospeler then is he, that thinks it a strange thing it is not all mankind? At least all our neighbors? All our countrymen and citizens? All that dwell in the land where the Light of life shines? God says one of a family, not one of every family neither; and methinks a man that had read the place, and considered it, should not have put in his own thoughts thus against God’s, nor have made it up into his own plan {“one would think that every family should come with their young and with their old,”} here’s not only every family brought in, but every individual in every family. Now he must suppose every family and every individual in every family, to be redeemed that comes to Jesus Christ by Faith; or, how is it possible they should come to Jesus, if not under his own blood of sprinkling, as well as his own blood of effusion; for this is the subject matter of the Church’s song, “and they sung a new song, saying, thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation.” Rev.5:9. Here the Church makes it to be Particular Redemption; not every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; but “out of” every kindred and tongue, &c., one would therefore wonder, since this has been so plainly foretold that it should be out of every kindred, how a Minister of the New Testament {after he might look through sixteen hundred years’ experience of the Church from the Apostle John’s time, and there see it to be all along but a sprinkling of individuals, or here and there a family, not every family, and in families here and there a person, not every person in the family seeking the Living Water; that this Minister of the New Testament} should come at last to confront his own wild mistakes {which he doth not adventure to show any text for} to Divine and Infallible Revelation, in his whimsical, brain-sick invention that one would think every family should come. How would one think it? From the Scriptures? For he does not attempt to prove the matter; but only quotes a text for the expression he uses, “one would think there should be flocking from every quarter like doves to the windows;” part of which language is Isaiah 60:8 as he takes notice of. Like doves, and I would therefore say all the doves fly to the windows; and when they multiply, they shall do so in greater flights. But what is this to every family with their young and with their old? What is this of the doves to the crows and the jackdaw? To birds of prey, and the cage of unclean birds? Rev.18:2. Families from every quarter where tidings come to me are full of these. What is the prophecy of flying as doves to the windows, which hath been made good among the Gentiles, and is so at this day, in the saints of every congregation, meeting at one time and in the same place, to every family, as he multiplies and extends the words of interpretation? What is the going out of some vain talkers, Tit.1:10, to publish and blaze abroad the matter, as in Mark 1:45, which he quotes by way of reference to this topic, to every body’s coming to see what is the matter, and their believing the truth as it is in Jesus, Eph.4:21, as his text quoted {if he had meant a proof, and not a mere marginal quotation} should have manifested, in a comprehensive argument, to prove how “we may well wonder every family do not come with their young and with her old to hear the Gospel,” and the excellency of Jesus Christ set forth? I would have been glad to have seen a text for the argument, and not a text against it for quite another thing that will not stand with it. ‘Tis pity when texts referred to with alphabetical letters, or asterisms, and the double bar, shall be found to be as wide as a thing can well be. Again, what is David’s resolve to the purpose? One holy man to a world of sinners? And yet he quotes him at the bottom of his forced margin, “surely I will not come into the tabernacle of my house, nor go up into my bed; I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine eyelids, until I find out a place for the LORD, an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob.” Psal.132:3-5. If my Lawyer understood the statute upon my case no jot better than this man makes the application of these Scriptures {there on page 146, which runs all in one strain} I would be very loath to see counsel. Does this man believe that God hath given men the spirit of slumber, that they can’t, and shall not see the Excellency of Christ? Also, that the Father hath hid these things from the wise and prudent? {“At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.” Matt.11:25.} In a word, does he believe that in this also he hath contradicted himself over and over in his book, and yet multiply his follies in the page at this rate? Hath not he said that, “a carnal man knows no more of Christ than Nicodemus?” {Page 61} Hath not he acknowledged that, “men can comprehend no more of Christ than what they receive, as being taught by the Word and Spirit of Christ?” {Page 7} And yet now, “because Christ is such a Glorious and Excellent Person as you have heard, one would think that wheresoever the Gospel is preached there should be flocking from every quarter like doves to the Windows, and that every family should come with their young and with their old.” {Page 145} What fresh contradictions are these! All the carnal men in a town, that know no more of Christ than Nicodemus, flock from every quarter to they know not whom, for they know not what! And flock too as doves to the windows, when we see so many cormorants among them, that devour widow’s houses, Matt.23:15, and so many ravens ready to pick out your eyes for preaching Christ crucified to be LORD of all! Fine windows where these are like to come and settle. II Sam.23:6-7. Again, such as comprehend no more of Christ than what they receive, yet flock after him for the sake of those glorious excellences they see not, nor receive! How can a man wonder he does not see what is impossible! Can men come from every quarter to the Mysteries of a Supernatural Gospel, in the true Excellences of Christ, who are under the power of nature, and never taught by the Word and Spirit of Christ? Ah! Poor brother at Northampton, it’s a pity thy piece came out so raw! {Opposite to the limited use of the word “every” in Hebrews 2:9, “but we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man;” where the word “every” only carries the Death of Christ to every of the “many sons,” vs.10, to the every of “the children” which the Father had given Christ, vs.13, to the every of “the church,” vs.12, to the every of “my brethren,” vs.12, to the every of “the sanctified,” vs.11, to the every of those rescued from bondage, vs.15, and to the every of such as are succoured in temptation, vs.18, &c.}

His third error in the Universal point is of the same tincture. “And ‘tis marvelous to think that all the world should not be sick of love for this Lovely and Beautiful Jesus.” {Page 109} Marvelous to whom? It must be to an Arminian, for it can never be marvelous to a Gospeler to think in such terms? {Rom.8:32, Acts 4:12, Mt.3:17, I Cor.1:30 & Eph.1:6, all which places confine to special and particular interest in Christ.} In the Appendix to the book, he boasts this in his interpreting of Romans 4:5, “I have the reverend and learned Dr. Thomas Goodwin on my side.” {Page 141} In this abuse of our Lord Christ he might have said, though I have not Dr. Thomas Goodwin, I do have John Goodwin of my side in his Redemption Redeemed1 upon this article; as well as he hath him on his side in the Exposition of Romans 9 on the former article, and likewise on his side in his Imputation of Faith unto Salvation, where his book hath so often insisted on the liberty of the act, instead of the power of the object. But, “the whole world lieth in wickedness,” I Jn.5:19; and is it marvelous that the whole world lying in wickedness should not be sick of love for Christ? It would be marvelous if they should, but the Holy Ghost assures us that a natural man {a man of soul, as the word is; a man of intellect, reach and natural capacity} receiveth not {hath no meet capacity for want of inward Renewings of Grace to receive} the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. I Cor.2:14. This very text Mr. Hunt makes use of to the same purpose in his book, {Page 2,} so early a tincture of the right doctrine that his book seemed to imbibe, however he soon came to contradict himself in this marveling that there was no Universal Conversion, which must suppose his belief of a Universal Redemption. But now, is it marvelous that a natural man who receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, because they are foolishness unto him, and that all the world of such are not sick of love for Christ? The world is in enmity against God, because the carnal mind is so, Rom.8:7; and is it marvelous to think that all the world in Enmity against God is not sick of love for Christ? What can any man think should slay this enmity if there be no Universal Redemption? He that marvels at one can’t be less than a Universalist in the other.

The world, a great part of them, are swine and dogs, as the Scriptures lay open; and is it marvelous that all the swine and dogs in the world do not fall sick of love for this Lovely and Beautiful Jesus? {Did Christ work out a Spiritual Salvation for Cain as well as for Abel? For Saul as for David? For Pharaoh as for Moses? For Judas as for Peter? For Pilate as for John the Baptist or as for John the Beloved Disciple? Who can imagine these things?} No, no, give the dog his scraps and his bones under the table, and he’ll never turn sick upon it, nor you need not marvel at it, if he must be fain to lie down before the fire upon a dirty hearth, when he has filled his belly; and so the swine, give her acorns or mash at the trough, and she’ll never turn sick upon it, II Pet.2:22, nor again ye need not marvel that she does not turn sick, that ye don’t make her a bed of Jasmine; for No, she’ll even go and lie down upon her dunghill, or in a hot day wallow in the mire, and get you in to your couch or featherbed by yourself. Why, the case is much like it in all the world’s not falling sick of love for the beautiful and lovely Jesus. The world is very well pleased as they are. You must find children and the Redeemer Spouse that bore them, if ever you find such as are fit by relation, and to be fitted further by a meetness to lie in Christ’s bosom. Lastly, can any man tell me, when the Third Person in the Godhead is not a Universal Sanctifier, to make all men sick of love for Christ, what reason he hath from the fruits, to believe the Second Person in the Godhead is a Universal Redeemer? Did Christ die that all men should have Supernatural Grace? And if he did not, then why is it marvelous that all the world are not sick of love for him? Why should I believe that God in One Person does more for all the world to save them, than God in another Person does? Jn.5:30 with verse 19. If Mr. Hunt flies to the inadequate distinction of Sufficient, though Non-Efficacious Grace, which the Sublapsarian Calvinists make use of, what can he make of it but an Arminian Superstructure upon a Pelagian bottom, or at least a Neo-Pelagian? {Sufficient to all, Efficacious to some, is usually admitted in the Sublapsarian way, not going by the Limits of God’s Covenant for Sufficiency, but the Infinite Responsibleness of God’s Son, separately; a Fundamental Error in the Ground of the Distinction; and which gives too much advantage for that known Distinction of the Arminians, a Universal Purchase by Impetration for all, and yet only a Particular Application of the Death of Christ to some.} I know that withal, the Popish schoolmen, Diego Alvarez and Pennott, use this false Distinction, and some of their Commentators, Ludovicus Tena and Denis the Carthusian; nay, the Popish doctors, Leo Papa, Innocentius III, Lombardus and Thomas, pretend as is usual to justify the accommodation of this distinction from the ancients; and here they defer not to rely upon the authority of Augustine himself, the Golden mouthed John Chrysostom, his contractor Theophylact of Ohrid, as also upon Cyril of Alexandria and Prosper of Aquitaine; but I dwell not on these things, as I’ll hasten to the rest.

His Fourth Error in the Universal point runs still in the same form. “One would think that all that have but heard of him should believe in him.” {Page 193} I answer, one would think he should have read and considered Romans 10:18 in point of mere argument against himself, though he had not been experimentally led into the Mystery of Grace. The Apostle there arguing useth these words, “but I say, have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.” How does the Apostle further argue upon this? Does he argue as our Universalist, one would think they should all believe since they have all heard? Does he argue with any inconsistent weakness, as to say, one would think they should all believe {whether he hath spiritually the hearing ear or not} in Christ that have but heard of him?

No, the Apostle argues quite oppositely, that they did know a great deal by hearing, and yet did not believe, verse 19, “but I say, did not Israel know?” They knew from the Scriptures that the Gentiles must be taught the Gospel, {however the very preaching of Messiah to the Gentiles was one of the Jewish stumblings,} and Paul quotes two or three texts of Scripture, even to the end of the chapter, to prove the separate success of a heard Gospel among the Gentiles; while the Jews lay scattered up and down the world and saw it, and all outward means working nothing on them but disobedience and contradiction to the pure Gospel of Christ they heard. So in the 13th of the Acts, and likewise in the last Chapter of the Acts we find the same thing. In all these places Paul does not cry out, “one would think all that have but heard of him should believe in him;” but plainly shows reasons for a separate believing, not a Universal believing; and acquiesces in the grounds of a Divine Discrimination. {In John 3:16, though “God so loved the world” of mankind with a general love that the world must be the object or place of Christ’s abode in the Flesh, to work out Salvation; yet the special Love of saving Individuals is expressly limited unto such Individuals as should be endued with Faith to believe on Him. “In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him.” I Jn.4:9.} Here in Romans 10:19, “but I say, did not Israel know?” Did they not know from God’s Word that the Gospel must be preached to the nations, and that the Gentiles as well as the Jews must hear it? First Moses saith, “I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people; I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation,” Deut.32:21, I have a people in mine eye that are not yet born, and the Gospel shall be preached to these; and instead of your Conversion in the Days of your succeeding offspring by the Gospel, which you and they shall hear; you’ll be but mad and jealous at it, lest I should show more kindness unto them than I have shown unto you; and thus, by a foolish nation that have worshiped dumb idols, I Thes.1:9 & I Cor.12:2, and not the Living God, I will anger you.

He does not say, I will convert you. Anger and Prejudices becomes an Effectual bar to that people’s believing in whom Grace shall refuse to work. Therefore he goes on, if you think Moses durst not have published a text in the sense of this comment; that God would ever make the Gentiles a people unto Him, and reject a people descended from the ancients of the house of Israel. Yes, says he, “but Esaias is very bold, and saith, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me. But to Israel he saith, all day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.” Rom.10:20-21. Not stretched them forth to save and sanctify the whole body of the Jews, but to sanctify all my redeemed ones among them, Eph.5:25, Eph.1:22, Acts 20:28, of one Mystical body with the elect Gentiles; and this would not be borne or suffered by the body of the Jews that heard it. And does the Apostle wonder that it should not. No, for he gives reasons enough for it in the next chapter, why all who have but heard of Christ could not believe in him. And in Acts 28:25-27, also Acts 13:48, he gives substantial reasons why all who have but heard of Christ must never be expected by the Ministers of Christ to believe in him. {“And some believed the things which were spoken, and some believed not. And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers, saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive; for the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.” Acts 28:24-27. “And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord; and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.” Acts 13:48.} ‘Tis his own world alone that receive life. “Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.” Jn.1:29.

Now don’t we see the same things oftentimes among the very Preachers, Pharisees and Professors? The Gospel converts them not, but angers them, as God said he would deal with the Jews by the Gospel. They know they must be emptied, ashamed, and most of what they have said and written and made a stir about, must go down, one time or another, if the Gospel be true; and this goes against the grain of flesh and blood. And as it was among the Jews, what they had been used to in Religion must go down if the Gospel was received, and nature could not buckle to the Gospel; so that they heard and heard, but gainsaying all for Antinomian that was Anti-Jewish. Why thus it has been among the Gentiles, and is so among us at this day. For are we better than they? Rom.3:9. As the Apostle says, no, in no wise. It is branded with Antinomianism if we preach the Gospel faithfully, discriminately, and leave it in the Spirit’s hand to carry it to the particularly redeemed with a Distinctive Efficacy, even to Salvation of their souls, among our hearers; and if we don’t offer Christ to all, without regarding Scripture Distinctions in limiting our message, and discriminating our doctrine, we fall {they pretend} into an Antinomian error. They are afraid that all holiness will go down, if it be not set up in their legal way; whereas I know holiness of truth {as distinguished from the cheat} actually does go down, so for as holiness is set up in their Arminian way.

Stephen Lobb in his Declaration of the Congregational Ministers, says that “the Tenth Antinomian error is that Ministers of the Gospel ought not to propound the Offers of Salvation unto all those to whom God calls them to preach, seriously inviting them to improve the means of Grace, that they may be saved.” {Page 10} Oh! See the mischief of these haughty classes! I am sure Christ doesn’t bid his Minister’s to meet at this Club of Diotrephes, III Jn.1:9, but to take heed to themselves and to their doctrine, I Tim.4:1, and not put it to the vote! And to the flocks over which the Holy Ghost hath made them overseers, Acts 20:28, and not to the funds, towards which it has been sadly evident their own ambition and partial interests have carried them, Psal.14:6; and in the issue is like to destroy what they profess, viz., the Congregational Interest. And let them come off as speciously as they can to men, I know they can never answer their practical Antinomianism to Christ in the matter of the funds and maintenance in the hands of their preachers, which is fitter to be done by Merchants than Ministers. We serve a Master, who when he was God’s Servant upon earth, Mt.12:18, would have nothing to do with funds, “man, {saith, our Saviour,} who made me a judge or a divider over you?” Lk.12:14. ‘Tis no wonder men left to these practices should bring up such a scandal upon the Congregational Churches, to pretend to be Congregational, and yet publish Arminianism in their New Declaration, when they have brought up a scandal upon the very Gospel by an Anti-Gospel. Let me see what Congregational Minister in the Kingdom strictly and holily such {for let me have none of your loose ones; no practical Antinomians to pretend to state Antinomian errors} will stand by this Arminian position in the cited Declaration of the pretended Congregational; and let him make it out solidly by the express Doctrine of the Gospel felt in his own soul; nay, by the arguments of the Anti-Remonstrants upon a fair state of this matter, as it was debated at Dordrecht, under the article of Universal Redemption, “that Ministers of the Gospel ought not to propound the Offers of Salvation unto all those to whom God calls them to preach, seriously inviting them to improve the means of Grace, that they may be saved.” When as Ministers are called to divide the Word aright, II Tim.2:15, to give to everyone a proper portion, and not invite promiscuously dogs to eat of the children’s bread, Mt.15:26, and call this an improving the means of grace that they may be saved. Ministers are called to be “the savour of death unto death,” II Cor.2:15-16, in them that perish; and not to flatter and coax them, to get their own interest and worldly names up among them, as if all that heard them were Universally Redeemed, and so those that perish might improve the Means of Grace and be saved. Where are the Faithful Ministers among us that look beyond spoiling of the collection, and often tell it to our Congregations, that there are brute beasts, II Pet.2:12, made to be taken and destroyed? That’s the truth which the world hates. Justice must be glorified in the condemnation of the wicked {and wicked here are such as Christ will say he never knew, Mt.7:23, in any sense righteous; not before their faith in Christ, and therefore never after their faith, which their preachers flatter and make them to believe they may be got into through Christ,} as well as Mercy in the Salvation of the upright, or those whom Mercy makes upright. I will tell them that which is otherwise crooked cannot be made strait. Eccl.1:15. This is the Truth, the other is a mere dream of a Universal Redemption. They are no Ministers of Christ like to be graciously prospered, {I say like to be graciously prospered,} in this Gospel Day, who have a sort of Universal Grace to buoy up all the sons of Adam with a hope; and yet sad to be spoken, and because true, more sad not to be spoken, he’s become a notable divine now that is most artful at Preaching as a trade, to please men, Gal.1:10, and can so cog the dice, Eph.4:14, as to make Grace as Universal as nature! So that in the worst matters of Arminianism dispersed through Mr. Hunt’s book he hath company enough. {Let Mr. Hunt tell me in his next book, why God would not pitch upon a Universal Power from the Spirit to receive Redemption, and yet pitch upon a Universal Merit in the Blood of Christ for him in Preaching the Gospel to go and offer Christ to all.}

His Fifth Error falling in with the Article of Universal Redemption is this, {much as we had before,} “one would think that all that have heard of Christ should be flocking to him as doves to the windows, not only upon the account of the need they stand of him, but also upon the account of those many incomparable Excellences that are to be found in him. One would think that every soul should be gathering unto this Shiloh, crying out, none but Christ, none but Christ; and that none should rest satisfied till they could say, this is my beloved, and this is my friend.” {Page 186-187} This Doctrine as it is the immediate descendent of Arminianism, as the Daughter is of the Mother, so it is very much of kin to Popery, as the Grandmother. For ‘tis one of the Popish Canons of the Council of Constance in the 15th Session thereof2, that the Proposition of John Huss, that the Church of Christ is the whole world, or the all of the predestinated, distinct from the world of the rest, ought to be condemned; and accordingly was so. Now if one would think that all that have heard of Christ should be flocking to him as doves to the windows, and since it is certain that this all who have heard of Christ are more than the all of the predestinated and redeemed, what could he build his thoughts on for this, but the Popish and the Arminian tenents of Universal Philanthropy and Universal Redemption? All that have heard of Christ flocking as doves? Then they must all alike belong to the dove-house, for strange birds never flock among the pigeons. “Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows?” Isa.60:8. They had need also be birds out of cage, to be upon the wing, if ever it comes to this flocking; and all brought about by another Power, {“for the kingdom of God is not in word, but in power,” I Cor.4:20,} than goes along with the Arminianism of this unattainable and fanciful hope and scheme. It is God’s work to convince the redeemed that they stand in need of Christ, Rev.3:17-18, and what, will God do the work proper to the elect, upon men redeemed only in general, for outward things in general, and redeemed only for the outward parts of Religion? It can’t be! Besides, how can men see they stand in need of Christ without this work? Do the Incomparable Excellences of Christ bring any but doves, from similitude with him who hath his eyes as doves by the rivers of waters, Song.5:12, to flock after Him? If a man be no Arminian, how can he thus fantasize or suggest it? One would think, says he, every soul should be gathering unto this Shiloh. Does he know what Shiloh signifies? It seems that he does not, for the matter is a plain argument against him. Shiloh is the Sent One; but now saith our Anointed Shiloh, “I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” Mt.15:24. Further, would one think that goats should cry out, “none but Christ, none but Christ, the Shepherd of Israel?” This belongs only to his Sheep for whom he laid down his life, Jn.10:15, and are brought from thence to hear his voice. Jn.10:27. Lastly, what has a stranger to do that is none of the bride, to come and say, what could never be maintained if he did utter it? And to prove it, some strangers do come with this lie in their mouth, and say, “this is my beloved, and this is my friend.” How! That can’t be, says Christ, but I must have known you in the Bridal Relation, in the Nuptial Ties of Grace! But I never knew you conjugally, Matt.7:23, I never poured out the Communications of my Love upon you; I never espoused you unto myself, nor gave out one Effectual Influence of my Grace proper to any but my Spouse. “I never knew you; depart from me you workers of iniquity, for I know you not.” Lk.13:27. Oh! These Universal Expostulations and Universal Expectations are mere zeal-cheats!

His Sixth Error discovered to be built upon Universal Redemption is sounded forth in a Universal Reproof, and that, not whether men will hear, or whether they will forbear, as the Scripture lays down, for the condemnation of the disobedient; but a zealous labor after the Salvation of every one, as if there were a hope, if we would use means we might bring off everyone from Condemnation. {“Thou shalt say unto them, thus saith the Lord GOD. And they, whether they will hear, or whether they will forbear, for they are a rebellious house, yet shall know that there hath been a prophet among them. And thou, son of man, be not afraid of them, neither be afraid of their words, though briers and thorns be with thee, and thou dost dwell among scorpions; be not afraid of their words, nor be dismayed at their looks, though they be a rebellious house. And thou shalt speak my words unto them, whether they will hear, or whether they will forbear; for they are most rebellious.” Ezek.2:4-7.} His words are as follows, “it reproves such as are more concerned and taken up about other things than about Christ. If men were as careless about other things as they are about Christ, this would not excuse their neglect of him; but to be so diligent in other matters, and mean while neglect Christ, must needs be an aggravation of their crime. As there is a transcendent Excellency to be found in Christ, which is not to be found in anything beside him, so God requires that it should be our greatest concern to make sure of an interest in him; and that we should first seek the Kingdom of God, and the righteousness thereof.” {Page 147}

Now if we examine this, not only by his other Principals discovered in the Universal particles of “all” and “every,” but by his jumbling all sorts, good and bad, in this reproof, under an equal notion of their greatest concern to make sure of an Interest in Christ, we shall be assured the point comes up in his meaning or managery, plainly to the point of Universal Redemption. “It reproves such as are more concerned and taken up about other things than about Christ.” Why then it reproves all mankind. {“For all seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ’s.” Phil.2:21.} Who is there not more concerned and taken up about other things than about Christ? To be sure all the unregenerate in the world are eminently so to a man of them. What can possibly prevent it from being otherwise in an Unregenerate State? Now are not the greatest part of the unregenerate {the non-elect} excluded from saving benefit by the Death of Christ? Are not most of them never born again and saved? Jn.8:21. Yet all this community of men are the object of his reproof, as if there were a hopes of their being saved. Had it been a reproof to men as they are, and a justifying God in his Righteous Condemnation of them, and there leaving it, it had been well; but the twisting of these men {in all this lump and community which I have shown deserves the reproof} into the number of the Particular Redeemed, Isa.53:12, whom God requires {and it is none but the Body Mystical of Christ all over the world whom he requires} that it should be their greatest concern to make sure of an interest in Christ, II Pet.1:10, evidently shows that all the reproof was built by this author upon a hope of securing men in the way of their Universal Redemption. Now they are dangerous Shepherds of Christ’s flock who speak as favorably in their Reproofs, and Ministry, of the state of wolves, tigers, bears, {that upwards look like men, but are not of the kind, Mt.7:15,} foxes, and goats, as they do of the sheep, and make their state {before the Conversion of the sheep} to be equally hopeful. These are very dangerous to the sheep. The reason is, their unskillfulness in the Word of Righteousness, Heb.5:13, even whilst they have no ill designs; though afterwards when the sheep grow better, these Non-Distinguishing Shepherds always grow worse. For Conversion does not make sheep of wolves and foxes, but Conversion makes white sheep of dirty sheep; sheep found of sheep lost; sheep under the care of the Shepherd, of sheep in the Wilderness that had gone astray. But our Anti-Union men are in the bottom of their thoughts I fear {so long as the tree is known by the fruits, Mt.12:33,} Anti-Election men; only the business is this, there are so many learned men who have owned Election, {in their Writings and Confessions,} they are loath to drop the notion of it professedly; but they will, when the nail is driven home upon them, acknowledge, there may be such a thing; but ‘tis plain they have dropped the life and use of it, as appears by their corruption in this next article, where their whole strain of the zeal, Rom.10:2, falls into the General Redemption Doctrines. And this is all I shall say against his Sixth Error in the article.

1 Reference is to John Goodwin, 1594–1665, Arminian theologian, prolific writer, and his book in defense of General Redemption, published in 1651, entitled, “Redemption Redeemed.”

2 The Council of Constance is the 15th Century Ecumenical Council organized by the Roman Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418. One goal of this Council was to continue the persecutions begun at the Council of Pisa. These persecutions were largely directed against John Wycliffe, mentioned in the opening Session, and condemned in the Eighth, 4 May 1415, and John Huss, and their followers. Huss, summoned to Constance under a letter of safe conduct, was found guilty of heresy by the Council and turned over to the Secular Court. {Council of Constance - Session 15, 6 July 1415.} The secular court sentenced him to Death. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church in 1415.